Cybersecurity efforts in EU

This course aims to offer learners with a thorough overview of the EU’s cybersecurity landscape. This includes investigating the region’s present threats, weaknesses, and problems. The course covers the EU’s relevant cybersecurity rules and policies. Understanding the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), the Network and Information Security (NIS) Directive, and other related legislative frameworks are all part of this. Participants will obtain an understanding of the European Union’s cybersecurity governance structures and frameworks. Exploring the roles and duties of various stakeholders, such as national agencies, regulatory bodies, and industry groups, may be part of this.


The training focuses on developing incident response and cyber protection mechanisms within the context of the European Union. Learning about threat intelligence, incident handling procedures, and best practices for minimizing cyber threats could be part of this. Participants would comprehend the significance of collaboration and information sharing across EU member states and enterprises to achieve effective cybersecurity. ENISA and other regional cooperation activities will be highlighted in the course.


The course also delves into emerging cybersecurity trends and technology in the EU. Cloud security, IoT security, artificial intelligence in cybersecurity, and the consequences of developing technologies on the EU’s cybersecurity strategy are all possible themes. The course aims to equip participants with a comprehensive understanding of the EU’s cybersecurity landscape, regulations, governance structures, incident response mechanisms, collaborative initiatives, and emerging trends. The outputs of the course include knowledge acquisition, practical skills development, and the ability to apply learned concepts to real-world scenarios.


Students will learn about the specific cyber threats targeting the EU, such as ransomware, data breaches, state-sponsored attacks, and emerging threats. They will understand the vulnerabilities present in critical infrastructure, government systems, businesses, and individual users within the EU context. Students will acquire knowledge of the key EU cybersecurity regulations, their requirements, and the implications for organizations operating within the EU. They will understand the legal obligations and responsibilities related to data protection, breach reporting, incident response, and critical infrastructure protection.


Students will also understand the roles and responsibilities of various EU cybersecurity stakeholders, including government agencies, regulatory bodies (e.g., European Union Agency for Cybersecurity – ENISA), Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs), and industry associations. They will learn about the coordination and cooperation mechanisms established to enhance cybersecurity at the regional level. Students will gain an understanding of the significance of information sharing and collaboration across EU member states, organizations, and cybersecurity stakeholders. They will look into platforms, structures, and initiatives such as ENISA, CERT-EU, and public-private partnerships to help with information exchange, threat intelligence sharing, and joint cybersecurity exercises within the EU. They will discuss cloud security considerations for EU organizations, securing Internet of Things (IoT) devices within the EU regulatory framework, the role of artificial intelligence (AI) in improving cybersecurity, and the impact of emerging technologies on the EU’s cybersecurity strategy.




Organization of cybersecurity



Emerging Technology

Threat landscape

International Cooperation

Cyber Security Efforts of EU



Cyber security protects computer systems, networks, and data from digital attacks, unauthorized access, and damage or theft of information. It involves implementing various measures to prevent, detect, and respond to cyber threats, ensuring digital assets’ confidentiality, integrity, and availability.


The importance of Cyber security is rising due to several factors. First, there is an increase in cyber threats in terms of frequency, sophistication, and impact. Cybercriminals and malicious actors continually evolve tactics, targeting individuals, organizations, and critical infrastructure. The expanding attack surface, driven by digital transformation and interconnectedness, necessitates robust Cyber security measures to protect against data breaches, ransomware attacks, identity theft, and other cybercrimes.

Second, the proliferation of digital technologies, such as cloud computing, the Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence (AI), and mobile devices, has heightened the complexity of the digital landscape. This expanding digital ecosystem creates new vulnerabilities and attack vectors, requiring organizations to implement robust Cyber security measures.

Third, data protection and privacy have become significant concerns. The growing reliance on digital platforms and services requires robust security measures to safeguard personal and sensitive data. Strict data protection regulations, like the GDPR, necessitate organizations to prioritize data security and protect against data breaches.

Fourth, Cyber security is essential for business continuity and reputation. Cyber security incidents can lead to financial losses, operational disruptions, and reputational damage. Organizations must prioritize the security of their data and systems to maintain trust with customers, partners, and stakeholders.



Cyber security typically consists of several key components, including:

  • Risk Management: Risk management involves identifying, assessing, and mitigating potential risks and vulnerabilities to the organization’s digital assets. It includes conducting risk assessments, establishing risk mitigation strategies, and


implementing security controls to minimize the impact of cyber threats.

  • Prevention: Prevention measures focus on proactively preventing cyber-attacks and unauthorized access to systems and data. This includes implementing robust access controls, firewalls, intrusion detection and prevention systems, and secure configurations to protect against common attack
  • Detection involves monitoring systems and networks for suspicious activities and security breaches. It includes implementing security monitoring tools, intrusion detection systems, and security information and event management (SIEM) solutions to promptly identify and respond to security
  • Incident Response: Incident response involves developing and implementing a plan to respond to and mitigate the impact of security incidents. This includes establishing incident response teams, defining roles and responsibilities, and conducting regular drills to ensure effective incident handling and
  • Cryptography: Cryptography is crucial in securing data in transit and at rest. It involves using encryption algorithms to protect sensitive information, authentication mechanisms to verify identities, and digital signatures to ensure data
  • Security Awareness and Training: The human factor is critical in Cyber security. Security awareness programs educate employees about Cyber security best practices, phishing awareness, password hygiene, and social engineering threats. Regular training helps users understand their role in maintaining a secure
  • Network Security: Network security focuses on securing the organization’s network infrastructure and data transmission. This includes implementing secure network architectures, segmenting networks, using virtual private networks (VPNs), and employing secure protocols like Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) or Transport Layer Security (TLS).
  • Endpoint Security: Endpoint security protects individual devices, such as computers, laptops, mobile devices, and servers. It involves deploying antivirus software, endpoint protection platforms, host-based firewalls, and conducting regular vulnerability assessments and patch
  • Security Governance and Compliance: Security governance ensures that Cyber security policies, procedures, and controls align with the organization’s overall business Compliance with


relevant regulations and frameworks, such as GDPR, NIS Directive, and industry-specific standards, is crucial for maintaining a secure posture.

  • Continuous Monitoring and Improvement: Cyber security is an ongoing process. Constant monitoring and improvement involve regularly assessing the effectiveness of security controls, performing security audits, conducting penetration testing, and staying updated with emerging threats and

These components work together to form a comprehensive Cyber security framework that helps organizations protect their digital assets, maintain the confidentiality and integrity of data, and ensure the availability of critical systems and services.

By addressing these components, organizations can establish a strong Cyber security posture and effectively mitigate the risks associated with cyber threats.



The European Union (EU) has recognized the importance of Cyber security and has made several efforts to secure its cyber domain. These efforts include:

  • General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): The GDPR is a regulation that sets guidelines for the collection and processing of personal data of individuals within the EU. It aims to protect the privacy and data of EU citizens and establishes stringent data protection requirements for
  • Network and Information Security Directive (NIS Directive): The NIS Directive is a legislative framework that provides measures to enhance Cyber security across EU member states. It requires critical infrastructure operators and digital service providers to implement security measures, report significant incidents, and cooperate with national
  • European Cyber security Act: The European Cyber security Act, which came into effect in 2019, establishes the European Union Agency for Cyber security (ENISA) as a permanent agency. It aims to strengthen the EU’s Cyber security capabilities and improve the certification framework for ICT products, services, and
  • Cyber security Strategy: The EU released a new Cyber security strategy in December 2020. It focuses on building resilience, combating cybercrime, strengthening the EU’s cyber defense, and fostering a global and open The strategy promotes


increased cooperation among member states, public-private partnerships, and international collaboration.

  • Cyber security Certification Framework: The EU has developed a Cyber security certification framework to ensure the trustworthiness of ICT products, services, and processes. It aims to establish a common European approach to certification, allowing users to make informed choices and improving the Cyber security of digital
  • Cyber Resilience Act: The Cyber Resilience Act is a legislative proposal to improve the Cyber security and resilience of critical infrastructure in the EU. It focuses on enhancing the prevention, detection, and response capabilities against cyber threats. The act emphasizes risk management, information sharing, and cooperation among member states, relevant authorities, and operators of essential services. It proposes risk assessments, incident response plans, and security measures to protect critical infrastructure
  • Digital Europe Program: The Digital Europe Program is a funding program to enhance the EU’s digital transformation and strengthen its Cyber security capabilities. It supports developing and deploying advanced digital technologies, including Cyber security It allocates funding to initiatives that improve critical infrastructure resilience, promote secure digital identities, enhance Cyber security skills, and develop certain digital products and services.

The EU also invests in Cyber security research and innovation programs, boosting collaboration and information sharing in the field. The EU hopes to safeguard its cyber domain, protect its citizens’ privacy and data, maintain the resilience of its key infrastructure, and effectively confront the growing cyber threat scenario by merging these multiple activities.

The EU has implemented legislative frameworks such as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the Network and Information Security Directive (NIS Directive) to set stringent data protection regulations and improve cyber security among member states. The European Cyber Security Act establishes the European Union Institution for Cyber Security (ENISA) as a permanent institution, demonstrating the EU’s commitment to increasing Cyber security capabilities and upgrading certification procedures.

Furthermore, the EU has created a new Cyber Security Strategy, which sets broad aims such as improving cyber defense, combatting


cybercrime, and boosting worldwide collaboration. The Cyber Security Certification Framework intends to create a standardized method of certification that would allow users to make educated decisions about trusted digital technology. The EU’s investments in research and innovation programs and the Digital Europe Program indicate the EU’s commitment to boosting Cyber security capabilities and promoting the development of sophisticated Cyber security solutions.



While the EU’s efforts show a strong commitment to cyber security, the effectiveness of these programs and the overall cyber security posture may differ across member states due to disparities in implementation and resource allocation. For the EU to sustain and strengthen its cyber security efforts, continuous monitoring, evaluation, and adaptation to emerging cyber threats are required. It is critical to remember that the cyber threat landscape constantly changes, and new issues emerge regularly. For the EU to handle these problems and maintain a secure cyber domain, ongoing collaboration, information sharing, and coordination across member states and public-private partnerships will be critical.



Suggested Readings:



Suggested Videos:


  • Citizenfour (2014). Director: Laura Poitras. USA: HBO Films.
  • Robot (2015). Director: Sam Esmail. ABD: USA Network.
  • Official Secrets (2019). Director: Gavin ABD: Classified Films, Clear Pictures, The Golden Company.
  • Snowden (2016). Director: Oliver USA: Endgame Entertainment.
  • The Fifth Estate (2013). Director: Bill Condon. USA: Dreamworks
  • “The Ransomware Attack” (Short Film) // GRS Technology, Solutions,
  • Vigilante Hacker Outsmarts Cyber Mafia,
  • Zero Days (2016). Director: Alex USA: Magnolia Pictures.

Dr. Salih Bıçakcı

Dr. Salih Bıçakcı is an Associate Professor of International Relations at Kadir Has University in Istanbul, Turkey, and a researcher at the university’s Center for Cybersecurity and Critical Infrastructure Protection. His research focuses on cybersecurity, critical infrastructure protection, hybrid security, data privacy, and terrorism. Dr. Bıçakcı is an advisor to the NATO Centre of Excellence for the Defence Against Terrorism (COE-DAT), and frequently lectures at COE-DAT as well as at the NATO Centres of Excellence for Command and Control, and for Maritime Security. Salih teaches courses on Cyber Security and Middle Eastern security at the Turkish War College’s Armed Forces Academy. Dr. Bıçakcı has prepared Cyber Security reports for nuclear power plants in Turkey and led simulation exercises and training for several organizations’ executive management. He is also leading She4Cyber Project to increase the visibility of women in the sector.

“The European Commission’s support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents, which reflect the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.”